Turkic Muslims in China and abroad have been “deported or forcibly transferred, without grounds permitted under international law … to another location, by expulsion or other coercive acts.” The Elements of Crimes provide that both physical and psychological force, such as “fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power against such person or persons or another person” can characterize an act of displacement as forcible transfer.

Han Chinese in Xinjiang






An estimated eight hundred thousand to two million Uyghurs and other Muslims, including ethnic Kazakhs and Uzbeks, have been detained since 2017. The Chinese government calls the facilities “vocational education and training centers;” the most common terms used by international media organizations and researchers are reeducation camps, internment camps, and detention camps. Some activists describe them as concentration camps.

Up to 1.8 million inmates in:

Detention Centers
"Reeducation Camps"


Forced labor is so commonplace in Xinjiang that it is difficult to separate the forced labor economy from the regular economy. It is estimated that there are 500,000 to 800,000 people held in the more than seventy prisons in Xinjiang and that these prisoners are used for forced labor in numerous industries. The million Uyghurs in the Xinjiang internment camps are likely also used for forced labor in a similar manner. Probably any cotton, textile or garment products from China are likely tainted with forced labor because Xinjiang supplies nearly 84 percent of China’s cotton.

Textile or garment products from China:

0 %
originated in Xinjiang
0 K
people working in the industry


Uyghurs are barred from freely practicing their religion, speaking their language, and expressing other fundamental elements of their identity. Restrictions apply to many aspects of life, including dress, language, diet, and education. The Chinese government closely monitors Uyghur religious institutions. Even ordinary acts such as praying or going to a mosque may be a basis for arrest or detention.

Mosques in Xinjiang:

0 %
0 %


Chinese government’s actions against Uyghur people constitute crimes against humanity. Inmates in the internment camps are drugged, interrogated for days without sleep, subjected to intrusive medical examinations, and strapped in a chair and received electric shocks. Media sources reported accounts of organized mass rape and sexual torture carried out in the internment camps. Forced sterilization of ethnic Uyghurs persisted since the 1980s.

11.5 mln Uyghurs in Xinjiang:

0 mln
prosecuted since 2017
0 in 25
sentenced to prison


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